Diabetes Specialist

Bertina Hooks, MD -  - Internal Medicine Physician

Phoenix Health & Wellness PC

Bertina Hooks, MD

Internal Medicine Physician located in Fair Oaks, CA

More than 30 million Americans are living with diabetes; if you’re one of them, with proper medical care and some changes to your diet and exercise habits, you can control your disease and improve your health. At Phoenix Health & Wellness PC in Roseville, California, Dr. Bertina Hooks provides medical support and advice to help you take care of your body and your health. Call or schedule an appointment online today.

Diabetes Q & A

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body produces or uses insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced in your pancreas that helps your body convert glucose — also referred to as blood sugar — into energy.

There are three main types of diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is often referred to as juvenile diabetes because it’s usually diagnosed in childhood. Type 1 diabetes develops when your pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin to convert glucose into energy effectively.

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed later in life, although it’s becoming more common in children. It develops because your body becomes resistant to insulin, forcing your body to produce more of the hormone until you can’t keep up with your body’s needs.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a form of the disease that typically develops during your second trimester of pregnancy. The placenta produces hormones that can interfere with the way your body uses insulin. Gestational diabetes typically goes away after your baby is born but it can increase your risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. 

What are common symptoms of diabetes?

Many people have diabetes and don’t know it as it may not cause any symptoms, or the signs might be so mild you don’t notice them. Some of the common symptoms include:

  • Excessive thirst and hunger
  • Frequent urination
  • Fatigue
  • Blurry vision
  • Slowly healing cuts and bruises
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Pain or numbness in your hands and feet
  • Frequent infections (urinary tract infections or fungal or bacterial)

What causes diabetes?

The exact causes of diabetes aren’t currently known, although there are genetic and environmental factors that contribute to all forms of the disease.

Type 1 diabetes develops when your immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas, which limits or eliminates your insulin production.

Type 2 diabetes develops as your body becomes resistant to insulin. While there are genetic factors that contribute to type 2 diabetes, there is also a strong correlation between being overweight and leading a sedentary lifestyle.  

How is diabetes diagnosed?

How is diabetes treated?

Dr. Hooks treats diabetes with a customized combination of lifestyle changes and medication. For example, if you have type 1 diabetes, you’ll need to take insulin to give your body what it needs to convert glucose to energy.

However, if you have type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, you may find that losing weight and changing your diet to include less sugar and refined carbohydrates and adding 30 minutes of daily moderate aerobic exercise — like a brisk walk after dinner — can have a positive effect on your body’s ability to use insulin. If diet and exercise aren’t enough to control your blood sugar levels, Dr. Hooks can prescribe medications in addition to your lifestyle changes.

For diabetes screening or help managing your diabetes, call or schedule an appointment online today at Phoenix Health & Wellness PC.


Last updated: April 30, 2018

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